Optimization of Methanol and Sodium Hydroxide used in the Production of Biodiesel using Jatropha Oil


  • Ejaz Mahmood Shahid Chaudhry The University of Lahore
  • Shahab Khushnood
  • Saad Ejaz


Transesterifiation, Biodiesel, Sodium Hydroxide, Methanol, Optimization


The popularity of biofuel is increasing rapidly due to scarcity of petroleum fuel and its equitableness towards the environment issues. Mostly biodiesel is produced with transesterification, in which organic oils or analogous stuff is reacted with alcohol in the presence of a suitable catalyst.In this study Methanol and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), as catalyst, was used to transesterify the Jatropha Oil. Since the economic sustainability is very important, so the study was made to cut down the cost of production of biodiesel. As the cost of Methanol and NaOH is considerable, so the amount of methanol and Sodium Hydroxide was optimized. The amount of methanol varied from 10% to 30% and NaOH varied from 8% to 20%. It was found that 21% methanol and 10.5% NaOH (m/v) revealed the highest yield i.e.96%, when Jatropha oil was used as feedstock. Mathematical model was developed and theoretical results were compared with experimental results. Both models were superimposed and a comprehensive correlation was established.  


R. O. Dunn. Alternative jet fuels from vegetable oils, Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Vol. 44, pp. 1751–57, 2001.

S. Sinha, A. K. Agarwal and S. Garg. Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization, Energy Conversion Management, Vol. 49(5), pp.1248–57, 2008.

L. G. Schumacher, WJ. Marshall, WB. Krahl, MS. Wetherell and MS. Grabowski. Biodiesel emissions data from Series 60 DDC engines, Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 44, pp. 1465–68, 2001.

C. Rösch and J. Skarka. The European biofuels policy and sustainability, International Association Energy Conservation, pp. 31–52, 2009.

B. Orchard, D. Jon and C. John. Developments in biofuel processing Technologies, World Pumps, Vol. 487, pp. 24–28, 2007.

S. A. Basha, K. R. Gopal and S. Jebaraj. A review on biodiesel production, combustion, emissions and performance, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, pp. 1628–34, 2009.

M. N. B. Mohiddin, Y. H. Tan, Y. X Seow, J. Kansedo, N.M. Mubarak, M. O. Abdullah, Y. S. Chan and M. Khalid. Evaluation on feedstock, technologies, catalyst and reactor for sustainable biodiesel production: A review, Journal of Industrial and Engineering and Chemistry, Vol. 98, pp. 60-81, 2021.

S. Khushnood, E. M. Shahid, Y. Jamal, A. N. Shah and M. A. Qureshi. Effect of Jatropha Methyl Ester on the Performance of an Off-Road CI Engine, Technical Journal, University of Engineering and Technology Taxila, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 34-40, 2013.

GPAG Pousa, ALF Santos and PAZ Suarez. History and policy of biodiesel in Brazi, Energy Policy, Vol. 35, pp. 5393-98, 2007.

B. K. Barnwal and M P. Sharma. Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils in India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 9, pp. 363–78, 2005.

D. Ayhan. Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels, Fuel, Vol. 87, pp.1743-48, 2008,

A. A. Refaat, N. K. Attia, H. A. Sibak, S. T. El Sheltawy, G. I. ElDiwani. Production optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 75–82, 2008.

Y. C. Sharma and B. Singh. Development of biodiesel from Karanja, a tree found in rural India, Fuel, Vol. 87, pp. 1740–42, 2008.

R. Schuchardta, R. Serchelia and, R. M. Vargas. Transesterification of vegetable oils: A review, Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, Vol. 9, pp. 199–210, 1998.

W. Y. Wong, S. Lim, Y. L. Pang, S. W. H. Shuit, W. Chen and K. T. Lee. Synthesis of renewable heterogeneous acid catalyst from oil palm empty fruit bunch for glycerol-free biodiesel production, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 727, Article No. 138534, 2020.

Z. IIiham Z. I. Z. Lubes and M. Zakaria. Analysis of parameters for fatty acid methyl esters production from refined palm oil for use as biodiesel in the single and two stage processes. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Vol. 17 , pp.5–9, 2009.




How to Cite

Chaudhry, E. M. S., Khushnood, S., & Ejaz, S. (2023). Optimization of Methanol and Sodium Hydroxide used in the Production of Biodiesel using Jatropha Oil. University of Wah Journal of Science and Technology (UWJST), 7(1), 76–85. Retrieved from https://uwjst.org.pk/index.php/uwjst/article/view/199