Main Article Content
A gabion wall of 30 m long and 9 m high for a residential plot at Bahria town Rawalpindi, Pakistan, started bulging right after one month of its construction. In this study, two approaches i.e., analytical and Finite Element Method (FEM) using Plaxis 2D software were carried out to assess the structural stability of the Gabion Retaining Wall. The results of the analytical and numerical analysis show that the Gabion Retaining Wall is marginally safe with the factor of safety (FOS) 1.19 and 1.07 respectively, while displacement at the top was found out to be 0.4 m with the maximum stresses at the toe. Finally, the stepped-faced Gabion Wall along with 200 mm concrete at the toe was found out to be a viable solution for the stabilization of the Gabion Retaining Wall. Consequently, FOS increased to 1.27 with the decrease of displacement at the top from 0.4 m to 0.1 m while stresses at the toe were decreased by 50%.
 G. C. Chikute, and I. P. Sonar, Failures of gabion walls, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1384–1390, 2019, doi: 10.35940/ijitee.J9731.0981119.
 S. Tariq, and C. Gomes, Landslide Environment in Pakistan after the Earthquake-2005: Information Revisited to Develop Safety Guidelines for Minimizing Future Impacts, Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters, Vol. 7, no. 3, 2017, doi: 10.4172/2167-0587.1000206.
 R. Farooqui, S. Ahmed, and S. Lodi, Assessment of Pakistani Construction Industry – Current Performance and the Way Forward, Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value, Vol. 1, no. 1, p. 51, 2008, doi: 10.37265/japiv.v1i1.122.
 A. Alexiou, D. Zachos, N. Alamanis, and I. Chouliaras, Construction Cost Analysis of Retaining Walls, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1909–1914, 2020, doi: 10.35940/ijeat.d8929.049420.
 N. C. Samtani, and E. A. Nowatzki, Soils and Foundation Reference Manual – Volume II, Washington, D.C., USA, 2006.
 V. Patil, N. Chopade, and G. Nadkarni, A Review Paper on Gabion Walls, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, p. 507, 2008.
 R. Joshi, Gabion Wall-A Cost Effective Solution, Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 290–292, 2016.
 D. Lin, B. Huang, and S. Lin, Deformation Analyses of Gabion Structures, Proceedings of the INTERPRAEVENT Conference, pp. 512–526, 2010.
 B. Toprak, O. Sevim, and I. Kalkan, Gabion Walls and Their Use, International Journal of Advances in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 2394–2827, 2016.
 WisDOT, WisDOT Bridge Manual Chapter 14 – Retaining Walls, Wisconsin, US, 2020.
 N. Utmani, S. Ahmad, R. U. Islam, and M. Abbas, Gabion wall used in road construction and flood protection embankment, Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, pp. 001–004, 2019, doi: 10.17352/2455-488x.000031.
 G. C. Chikute, and I. P. Sonar, Techno-Economical Analysis of Gabion Retaining Wall Against Conventional Retaining Walls, Techno-Economical Analysis of Gabion Retaining Wall Against Conventional Retaining Walls, no. September, pp. 1161–1167, 2019.
 ASTM A975-97, Standard Specification for Double-Twisted Hexagonal Mesh Gabions and Revet Mattresses (Metallic-Coated Steel Wire or Metallic-Coated Steel Wire With Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Coating), West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 1997. doi: 10.1520/A0975-97.
 ASTM-D-1586, Standard Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils, ASTM Standard Test Method, Vol. D1586, pp. 1–9, 2011, [Online]. Available: papers2://publication/uuid/35B85424-852A-4B25-8883-63D2F4EF206B
 ASTM D-1556, Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method, Methods, Vol. 04, pp. 8–14, 2011.
 ASTMD3080, Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils, Annual book of ASTM standards, Vol. 04.08, p. 2, 1998.
 E. A. Nowatzki, and B. P. Wrench, Geotechnical Investigation into Causes of Failure of a Gabion Retaining Wall, International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 1477–1481, 1988.
 L. Cao, S. M. Peaker, and S. Ahmad, A case study of embankment retaining wall in Ontario A case study of embankment retaining wall in Ontario, in 69th Annual Canadian Geotechnical Conference, 2016, no. October.
 D. P. Conduto, Foundation Design Principles and practices.pdf, SECOND EDI. 2001.
 B. Das, Principles of foundation engineering, 8th ed. US: Cengage learning, 2016.
 C. T. Peerdawood, and Y. I. Mawlood, Analytical Study for Stability of Gabion Walls, Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences / Salahaddin University -Hawler, Vol. 22, no. 5, 2016.
 BS-EN-1997-1, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules, London, UK, 2004.
 D. T. Bergado, C. Teerawattanasuk, S. Youwai, and P. Voottipruex, Finite element modeling of hexagonal wire reinforced embankment on soft clay, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1209–1226, 2000, doi: 10.1139/t00-065.
 E. Thelen, Properties of soils, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 254, no. 4, pp. 323–325, 1952, doi: 10.1016/0016-0032(52)90904-6.
 R. B. J. Brinkgreve, W. Broere, and D. Waterman, Plaxis 2D Manual - Version 8, 2006.
 BS-8002, Code of practice for earth retaining structures, London, UK, 2015.